Graeme Blair (

Graeme is an Assistant Professor of Political Science at UCLA. He uses experiments and field research to study the causes and consequences of violence in developing countries — and what we can do about them. He received his Ph.D. in political science from Princeton University.

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Rebecca Littman (

Rebecca is a postdoctoral fellow in the Human Cooperation Lab at MIT. Her research focuses on the psychology of collective violence, reconciliation, and behavior change. She received her Ph.D. in Psychology and Social Policy from Princeton University.

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Betsy Levy Paluck (

Betsy is a Professor of Psychology and Public Affairs at Princeton University, and the Deputy Director of the Kahneman-Treisman Center.

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We thank Robin Gomila for extraordinary research assistance. We are also very grateful to Allison Bland, Molly Clark-Barol, Alexander Coppock, Sasha Cuerda, Jose Drost-Lopez, Amanda Edgell, Maddy Gleave, Jessica Okeke, and Molly Offer-Westort for additional research assistance. We thank our partners in the interventions and data collection, especially Integrity Nigeria; iROKO TV; Magic Movies; a major mobile phone firm in Nigeria that wishes to remain anonymous; TNS RMS Nigeria, and especially Mariam Fagbemi and Chike Egbulefu; MK&I, and especially Yinka Aderoju and Abiodun Seosan; Funmobile, and especially Adewale Adetule; and Social Action. We also thank Kabat Egbon and Ken Henshaw for assistance in developing the interventions, and Clinton Okpowhor and Charles Uche for help in developing and translating our measurement. We are grateful for useful comments from audiences at Yale, Harvard, Evidence in Governance and Politics (EGAP), the Contemporary African Political Economy Research Seminar (CAPERS), the Paluck lab, the UCLA Improving Designs in the Social Sciences workshop, and the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting.